Korean Journal of Agricultural Science (Korean J. Agric. Sci.; KJOAS)
Indexed in KCI (Korea Citation Index), Open Access, Peer Reviewed.
pISSN 2466-2402
eISSN 2466-2410

Vegetable transplanters and kinematic analysis of major mechanisms: a review



Habineza E, Ali M, Reza MN, Woo JK, Chung SO, Hou Y. Vegetable transplanters and kinematic analysis of major mechanisms: a review. Korean Journal of Agricultural Science 50:113-129.

Korean Journal of Agricultural Science (Korean J. Agric. Sci.) 2023 March, Volume 50, Issue 1, pages 113-129. https://doi.org/10.7744/kjoas.20230007

Received on 29 December 2022, Revised on 29 December 2022, Accepted on 21 February 2023, Published on 30 March 2023.

Vegetable transplanters and kinematic analysis of major mechanisms: a review

Eliezel Habineza1, Mohammod Ali2, Md Nasim Reza1,2, Jea-Keun Woo3, Sun-Ok Chung1,2,*,†, Yaxiu Hou4,*,†

1Department of Smart Agricultural Systems, Graduate School, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea

2Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Graduate School, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea

3National Institute of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration, Jeonju 54875, Korea

4College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, China

These authors equally contributed to this study as corresponding author.

*Corresponding authors: sochung@cnu.ac.kr, 452739945@qq.com


Seedling transplanting is an essential step in vegetable cultivation. Although vegetable transplanting can be automated and mechanized, mostly is still performed manually, which is laborious, time-consuming, and inefficient. The objective of this study was to conduct a review of the existing vegetable transplanters used for seedling transplanting, and of kinematic analyses of their major mechanisms. Generally, vegetable transplanters are classified into three main categories: handheld, semi-automated, and fully automated. Researchers described mechanisms involved in the overall transplanting process, which included seedling picking from the nursery tray, conveyance to the planting unit, and planting in the soil. The main mechanisms involved are picking and dibbling, which both include bar-based and gear-based mechanisms. For successful seedling transplanting, analytical techniques, CAD systems, and computer methods are used to evaluate the operating characteristics of transplanter components, and to determine the number of link bars and gears required to achieve the appropriate seedling transplanting trajectory. The effective field efficiency and transplanting efficiency of transplanters were evaluated based on seedling pick-up, feeding, planting rates, and operational speed. Recent studies reported that seedling transplanting methods using clamp-type and sliding-type picking mechanisms with 4 and 5-bar-based linkages, and 1 to 2 degrees of freedom, were effective at holding and releasing seedlings without damaging them. In addition, gear-driven rotating dibbling mechanisms were recommended for their capacity to plant 45 seedlings per minute at a sufficient rate. Scientific trends highlight the performance capabilities of each type of transplanter, which could guide the manufacturers to enhance vegetable-transplanter designs.


agricultural machinery, kinematic analysis, picking mechanism, transplanting mechanism, vegetable transplanter


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Authors Information

Eliezel Habineza, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0364-420X

Mohammod Ali, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1822-3005

Md Nasim Reza, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7793-400X

Jea-Keun Woo, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8045-8908

Sun-Ok Chung, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7629-7224

Yaxiu Hou, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7449-4547


This work was carried out with the support of “Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development (PJ01606101, Combined work type high-performance field crop precision planting & transplanting technology development)” Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.

Conflicts of interest

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.