Korean Journal of Agricultural Science (Korean J. Agric. Sci.; KJOAS)
Indexed in KCI (Korea Citation Index), Open Access, Peer Reviewed.
pISSN 2466-2402
eISSN 2466-2410

The effects of different management strategies on growth and quality of rice (Oryza sativa L.)



Kang YG, Lee JH, Lee JY, Oh TK. The effects of different management strategies on growth and quality of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Korean Journal of Agricultural Science 50:75-86.

Korean Journal of Agricultural Science (Korean J. Agric. Sci.) 2023 March, Volume 50, Issue 1, pages 75-86. https://doi.org/10.7744/kjoas.20230004

Received on 26 August 2022, Revised on 26 August 2022, Accepted on 14 February 2023, Published on 30 March 2023.

The effects of different management strategies on growth and quality of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Yun-Gu Kang, Jae-Han Lee, Jun-Young Lee, Taek-Keun Oh*

Department of Bio-Environmental Chemistry, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea

*Corresponding author: ok5382@cnu.ac.kr


Silicate fertilizer treatment in rice tillage can improve crop growth and increase yield. In addition to applying Si to the soil, silicate fertilizer has various effects as a soil improver such as improving soil pH improvement and enhancing drainage. Blast furnace slag (BFS) is a byproduct generated during the iron making process and is used as component of silicate fertilizer. BFS is mainly used as an ingredient of concrete and is a waste that is harmless to humans. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of silicate fertilizer application on crop growth and milling characteristics. A cultivation experiment was performed to investigate the growth and quality of plants, and rice was used as the cultivated crop. When BFS is mixed with silicate fertilizer, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and available silicon dioxide (Av. SiO2) content increased but total phosphate (T-P2O5) content decreased. In the soil treated with silicate fertilizer, the pH, EC, Av. SiO2, and exchangeable cations contents increased. The results of investigating the growth of crops showed that when silicate fertilizers including BFS were treated, plant height, yield, and chlorophyll contents were significantly increased. From an analysis of taste characteristics, the protein contents of the grain increased by 10%, and there was no statistically significant difference in the other treatments. When silicate fertilizer containing BFS was applied, the proportion of head rice increased compared to other units. On the basis of these results, silicate fertilizer containing BFS is expected to have a positive effect on agricultural competitiveness by increasing crop production and contributing to a stable crop production system.


blast furnace slag, grain quality, rice growth, silicate fertilizer


Ali MA, Oh JH, Kim PJ. 2008. Evaluation of Silicate iron slag amendment on reducing methane emission from flood water rice farming. Journal of Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 128:21-26.

Bae EJ, Kim CY, Yoon JH, Lee KS, Park YB. 2018. Effect of silicate fertilizer application on Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) field. Weed & Turfgrass Science 7:247-257. [in Korean]

Choi BS, Jang YM, Lee SH, Chung NJ, Cho JW. 2019b. Comparison of forage yield and growth characteristics of two forage rice cultivars (cv. Mogyang and cv. Mogwoo) in a reclaimed rice field. Korean Journal of Agricultural Science 46:791-798. [in Korean]

Choi EJ, Jeong HC, Kim GY, Lee SI, Gwon HS, Lee JS, Oh TK. 2019a. Assessment of methane emission with application of rice straw in a paddy field. Korean Journal of Agricultural Science 46:857-868. [in Korean]

Choi HC, Hong HC, Nahm BH. 1997. Physico-chemical and structural characteristics of grain associated with palatability in japonica rice. Korean Journal of Breeding Science 29:15-27. [in Korean]

Choi HY, Kim KH, Choi HC, Hwang HG, Kim YG, Kim KJ, Lee YT. 2006. Analysis of grain quality properties in Korea-bred Japonica rice cultivars. Korean Journal of Crop Science 51:624-631. [in Korean]

Choi MK, Chang MS, Eom SH, Min KS, Kang MH. 2015. Physicochemical composition of buckwheat microgreens grown under different light conditions. Journal of Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition 44:709-715. [in Korean]

Choi SW, Kim V, Chang WS, Kim EY. 2007. The present situation of production and utilization of steel slag in Korea and other countries. Magazine of the Korea Concreate Insititute 19:28-33. [in Korean]

Crusciol CA, Artigiani AC, Arf O, Carmeis Filho AC, Soratto RP, Nascente AS, Alvarez RC. 2016. Soil fertility, plant nutrition, and grain yield of upland rice affected by surface application of lime, silicate, and phosphogypsum in a tropical no-till system. Catena 137:87-99.

Cuong TX, Ullah H, Datta A, Hanh TC. 2017. Effects of silicon-based fertilizer on growth, yield and nutrient uptake of rice in tropical zone of Vietnam. Rice Science 24:283-290.

Eneji AE, Inanaga S, Muranaka S, Li J, Hattori T, An P, Tsuji W. 2008. Growth and nutrient use in four grasses under drought stress as mediated by silicon fertilizers. Journal of Plant Nutrition 31:355-365.

Fitzgerald MA, Reinke RF. 2006. Rice grain quality III. A report for the rural industrial research and development corporation. RIRDC Publication 6:56.

Guo J, Bao Y, Wang M. 2018. Steel slag in China: Treatment, recycling, and management. Journal of Waste Management 78:318-330.

Han JJ, Lee KS, Park YB, Bae EJ. 2014. Effect of growth and nitrogen use efficiency by application of mixed silicate and nitrogen fertilizer on zoysiagrass cultivation. Weed&Turfgrass Science 3:137-142. [in Korean]

Jiang SL, Wu JG, Feng Y, Yang XE, Shi CH. 2007. Correlation analysis of mineral element contents and quality traits in milled rice (Oryza stavia L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55:9608-9613.

Ju JH, Lee SB. 2011. Assessment of silicate fertilizers application affecting soil properties in paddy field. Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer 44:1016-1022. [in Korean]

Kim CB, Lee DH, Choi J. 2002. Effects of soil improvement on the dependence of rice nutrient contents and grain quality. Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer 35:296-305. [in Korean]

Kim CE, Kang MY, Kim MH. 2012b. Comparison of properties affecting the palatability of 33 commercial brands of rice. Korean Journal of Crop Science 57:301-309. [in Korean]

Kim GW, Kim BJ, Yang KH, Song JK. 2012a. Strength development of blended sodium alkali-activated ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) mortar. Journal of the Korea Concreate Institute 24:137-145. [in Korean]

Kim MS, Park SJ, Kim SH, Hwang HY, Ahn SH, Lee DW, Lee YH. 2019. Changes of soil chemical quality index of paddy soils by long-term application of soil amendments. Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer 52:334-344. [in Korean]

Kim SH, Lee JH, Lim JS, Shinogi Y, Lee CH, Oh TK. 2018. Comparison of methane emissions on soil texture in Korean paddy fields. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University 63:393-397.

Kim YS, Kim KS. 2012. Growth and wear tolerance of creeping bentgrass as influenced by silica and potassium fertilization. Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science 26:116-122.

Koh T, Moon SW, Jung H, Jeong Y, Pyo S. 2018. A feasibility study on the application of basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag for railway ballast material. Journal of Sustainability 10:284.

Lee CY, Park JS, Lee JK, Kim EJ, Lee HD, Choi YS, Kim IJ, Hong ST, Kim CK, Woo SH. 2019. Selection of suitable varieties for organic rice farming in the central plain area of Korea. Korean Journal of Crop Science 64:176-184. [in Korean]

Lee KB, Kim JG, Park CW, Shin YK, Lee DB, Kim JD. 2005. Effect of irrigation water depth on greenhouse gas emission in paddy field. Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer 38:150-156. [in Korean]

Lim CH, Kim SY, Kim PJ. 2011. Effect of gypsum application on reducing methane (CH4) emission in a reclaimed coastal paddy soil. Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture 30:243-251. [in Korean]

Lim JY, Kang YG, Sohn KM, Kim PJ, Galgo SJC. 2022. Creating new value of blast furnace slag as soil amendment to mitigate methane emission and improve rice cropping environments. Science of the Total Environment 4:150961.

Ma JF, Yamaji N. 2006. Silicon uptake and accumulation in higher plants. Trends in Plant Science 11:392-397.

NAAS (National Institute of Agricultural Sciences). 2010. Recommendation of the amount of fertilizer for crops. RDA, Jeonju, Korea. [in Korean]

Patil AA, Durgude AG, Pharande AL, Kadlag AD, Nimbalkar CA. 2017. Effect of calcium silicate as a silicon source on growth and yield of rice plants. International Journal of Chemical Studies 5:545-549.

Piatak NM, Parsons MB, Seal II RR. 2015. Characteristics and environmental aspects of slag: A review. Journal of Applied Geochemistry 57:236-266.

Proctor DM, Fehling KA, Shay EC, Wittenborn JL, Green JJ, Avent C, Bigham RD, Connolly M, Lee B, Shepker TO, et al. 2000. Physical and chemical characteristics of blast furnace, basic oxygen furnace, and electrical arc furnace steel industry slags. Environmental Science & Techonology 34:1576-1582.

Sauza RFD, Avila FW, Faquin V, Pozza AAA, Carvalho JG, Evangelista AR. 2011. Carbonate-silicate ratio for soil correction and influence on nutrition biomass production and quality of palisade grass. Journal of Scientia Agricola 68:526-534.

Song MR, Koh HJ, Kang MY. 2008. Variation of properties of lipid components in rice endosperm affected on palatability. Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry 51:207-211. [in Korean]

Takahashi E, Ma JF, Miyake Y. 1990. The possibility of silicon as an essential element for higher plant. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2:99-102.

Authors Information

Yun-Gu Kang, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5368-5910

Jae-Han Lee, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5761-2006

Jun-Yeong Lee, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7486-3405

Taek-Keun Oh, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0215-0427


This work was carried out with the support of Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science & Technology Development (Project No. PJ01713203), Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.

Conflicts of interest

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.