PLANT&FOREST

Diversity and cluster analysis of pine mushroom’s endophytes using metagenome analysis

Jong Beom Seo1,*   Ah Hyeon Choi1   Butoto Imani wa Rusaati1   Jun Won Kang1,*   

1School of Forest Sciences and Landscape Architecture, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea

Abstract

Tricholoma matsutake (Pinus mushroom, PM) is one of the most valued ectomycorrhizal fungi in Asia because it is an expensive forest product with a unique flavor and taste. Therefore, many studies have tried to successfully cultivate Tricholoma matsutake artificially in Korea and other countries. However, its physiological and ecological characteristics are still unknown. Thus, we need to understand the diversity and clusters of microorganisms related to Tricholoma matsutake and to identify their core microorganisms related to their growth and production. In this study, we obtained an average of 11,661 fragments from three pine mushrooms with metagenome (an assemblage of genes of all microorganisms in the natural world) analysis from a pine forest located in Pohang, Gyeongsang-Bukdo. Of these, the valid reads were on average 5,073 per sample available for analysis, and the average length of a read was 456 bp. There were an average of 33.3 phyla in the metagenome analysis. Firmicutes phylum made up on an average 46% of the phyla and was dominant among the phyla. The next dominant phylum was Proteobacteria at 27% followed by Bacteroidetes at 17%, Actinobacteria at 5% and Verrucomicrobia at 2%. The Proteobacteria phylum consisted of the γ-proteobacteria class at 54% followed by β-proteobacteria at 37%, α-proteobacteria at 6%, δ-proteobacteria at 2% and ζ-proteobacteria at 0%. The metagenome consisted of the Ruminococcaceae family at 17% followed by Pseudomonadaceae at 13%, Burkholderiaceae at 7%, Bacteroidaceae at 7%, Lachnospiraceae at 7% and Clostridiaceae at 6%.

Figures & Tables

Fig. 1. Place where research material was extracted. (A) Three pine mushrooms used in the study. (B) Compartment 17, mountain 213, Sangdae-ri, Cheongha-myeon, Buk-gu, Pohang-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea. (C) Pine forest in which the mushroom is collected.