The aim of this study was to develop a marbling classification and prediction model using small parts of sirloin images based on a deep learning algorithm, namely, a convolutional neural network (CNN). Samples were purchased from a commercial slaughterhouse in Korea, images for each grade were acquired, and the total images (n = 500) were assigned according to their grade number: 1++, 1+, 1, and both 2 & 3. The image acquisition system consists of a DSLR camera with a polarization filter to remove diffusive reflectance and two light sources (55 W). To correct the distorted original images, a radial correction algorithm was implemented. Color images of sirloins of Hanwoo (mixed with feeder cattle, steer, and calf) were divided and sub-images with image sizes of 161 × 161 were made to train the marbling prediction model. In this study, the convolutional neural network (CNN) has four convolution layers and yields prediction results in accordance with marbling grades (1++, 1+, 1, and 2&3). Every single layer uses a rectified linear unit (ReLU) function as an activation function and max-pooling is used for extracting the edge between fat and muscle and reducing the variance of the data. Prediction accuracy was measured using an accuracy and kappa coefficient from a confusion matrix. We summed the prediction of sub-images and determined the total average prediction accuracy. Training accuracy was 100% and the test accuracy was 86%, indicating comparably good performance using the CNN. This study provides classification potential for predicting the marbling grade using color images and a convolutional neural network algorithm.
Figures & Tables
Fig. 1. Schematic design of the image acquisition devices for beef marbling classification with two light sources.