ANIMAL

Effects of dietary mangosteen peel extract on growth performance, jejunum morphology, cytokines profiles, and fecal microbiome in growing pigs with high stocking density

Minji Kim1, Jin Young Jeong1, Nam-Geon Park1, Eunju Kim2, Sang Seok Joo3, Moongyeong Jung3, Myunghoo Kim3,4, Yoo-Bhin Kim1,*

1Animal Nutrition & Physiology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Wanju 55365, Korea
2Animal Diseases & Health, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Wanju 55365, Korea
3Department of Animal Science, College of Natural Resources & Live Science, Pusan National University, Miryang 50463, Korea
4Life and Industry Convergence Research Institute, Pusan National University, Miryang 50463, Korea

*Corresponding author: ybin51@korea.kr

Abstract

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary mangosteen peel extract (MPE) on growth performance, serum biochemistry, jejunum morphology, and cytokine levels in growing pigs raised at a high stocking density. A total of 120 male growing pigs (43.68 ± 0.48 kg) were randomly arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design with stocking density (high; HD, 0.55 m2/pig and normal; ND, 0.82 m2/pig) and dietary MPE (0 or 5 g/kg) as factors. Each treatment had six replicates with four or six pigs per treatment. Feed and water were provided ad libitum for 6 weeks. The HD group exhibited lower final body weight, average daily gain, and average daily feed than the ND group (p < 0.05). None of the factors affected villus height to crypt depth ratio. Dietary MPE, but not stocking density, increased IL-10 levels in the serum com-pared to the non-supplemented control diet (p < 0.05). In the microbiome analysis, alpha diversity analysis showed significant reductions in the MPE-treated group only under normal density conditions. High density stress induced gut microbiome changes and these response was differ between normal and MPE diet fed pigs. Overall, each group exhibited different major microbial composition in the gut. In conclusion, there were significant changes in the major microbial composition in response to high-density stress, and this variation was influenced by dietary treatment.

Keywords

growing pigs, mangosteen peel extract, microbiome, stocking density

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