Practical significance of plant growthpromoting rhizobacteria in sustainable agriculture: a review

Subhashini Wijeysingha1, Buddhi C. Walpola1,*, Yun-Gu Kang2, Min-Ho Yoon2,*, Taek-Keun Oh2,*

1Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Mapalana, Kamburupitiya 81100, Sri Lanka
2Department of Bio-Environmental Chemistry, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea

*Corresponding authors:,,


Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are naturally occurring bacteria that intensively colonize plant roots and are crucial in promoting the crop growth. These beneficial microorganisms have garnered considerable attention as potential bio-inoculants for sustainable agriculture. PGPR directly interacts with plants by providing essential nutrients through nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization and accelerating the accessibility of other trace elements such as Cu, Zn, and Fe. Additionally, they produce plant growthpromoting phytohormones, such as indole acetic acids (IAA), indole butyric acids (IBA), gibberellins, and cytokinins.PGPR interacts with plants indirectly by protecting them from diseases and infections by producing antibiotics, siderophores, hydrogen cyanide, and fungal cell wall-degrading enzymes such as glucanases, chitinases, and proteases. Furthermore, PGPR protects plants against abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity by producing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase and modulating plant stress markers. Bacteria belonging to genera such as Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Pantoa, and Enterobacter exhibit multiple plant growth-promoting traits, that can enhance plant growth directly, indirectly, or through synergetic effects. This comprehensive review emphasizes how PGPR influences plant growth promotion and presents promising prospects for its application in sustainable agriculture.


biofertilizer, phytohormone, rhizobacteria, sustainable agriculture

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