Effects of biochar-based fertilizer on ammonia volatilization under controlled conditions
Department of Bio-Environmental Chemistry, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea
As the interest in sustainable and environmentally friendly agriculture continues to grow, there is a corresponding increase in organic fertilizers utilization. However, studies on ammonia (NH3) emissions, which are primarily generated in the agricultural sector, by organic fertilizers are lacking. Additionally, the reliance on imported ingredients in the production of organic fertilizers hinders the widespread adoption of organic fertilizers. This study aims to evaluate NH3 volatilization by incorporating rice husk biochar into organic fertilizers. The study also aims to assess whether domestically produced rice husk biochar can serve as a viable substitute for imported ingredients. Here, the dynamic chamber method was used under controlled conditions. Results show that inorganic fertilizers readily undergo hydrolysis, thereby rapidly generating significant amounts of NH3 , particularly in the initial stages. In contrast, organic fertilizers decompose gradually, leading to relatively long-term NH3 emissions. The incorporation of rice husk biochar into organic fertilizers demonstrated diminished daily NH3 emissions compared to those from commercial organic fertilizers, resulting in decreased total NH3 volatilization. These findings show that the combination of rice husk biochar can reduce NH3 volatilization and serve as an alternative to imported ingredients for organic fertilizers. The results of this study can be utilized as fundamental information for the assessment of biochar as a potential ingredient for organic fertilizers.
biochar, dynamic chamber method, NH3, rice husk, sustainable agriculture