Measurement and analysis of tractor emission during plow tillage operation

Jun-Ho Lee1, Hyeon-Ho Jeon1, Seung-Min Baek1, Seung-Yun Baek1, Wan-Soo Kim2, Yong-Joo Kim1,3,*, Ryu-Gap Lim4,*

1Department of Smart Agriculture Systems, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea
2Department of Bio Industrial Machinery Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
3Department of Biosystems Machinery Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea
4Department of Digital Agriculture, Korea Agriculture Technology Promotion Agency, Iksan 54667, Korea

*Corresponding author:,


In Korea, the U.S. Tier-4 Final emission standards have been applied to agricultural machinery since 2015. This study was conducted to analyze the emission characteristics of agricultural tractors during plow tillage operations using PEMS (portable emissions measurement systems). The tractor working speed was set as M2 (5.95 km/h) and M3 (7.60 km/h), which was the most used gear stage during plow tillage operation. An engine idling test was conducted before the plow tillage operation was conducted because the level of emissions differed depending on the temperature of the engine (cold and hot states). The estimated level of emissions for the regular area (660 m2), which was the typical area of cultivation, was based on an implement width of 2.15 m and distance from the work area of 2.2 m. As a result, average emission of CO (carbon monoxide), THC (total hydrocarbons), NOx (nitric oxides), and PM (particulate matter) were approximately 6.17×10-2, 3.36×10-4, 2.01×10-4, and 6.85×106 g/s, respectively. Based on the regular area, the total emission of CO, THC, NOx, and PM was 2.62, 3.76×10-2, 1.63, and 2.59×10-4 g, respectively. The results of total emission during plow tillage were compared to Tier 4 emission regulation limits. Tier 4 emission regulation limits means maximum value of the emission per consumption power (g/kWh), calculated as ratio of the emission and consumption power. Therefore, the total emission was converted to the emission per power using the rated power of the tractor. The emission per power was found to be satisfied below Tier 4 emission regulation limits for each emission gas. It is necessary to measure data by applying various test modes in the future and utilize them to calculate emission because the emission depends on various variables such as measurement environment and test mode.


agricultural tractor, emission, plow tillage, portable emission measurement system, regular area

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